ACTIVITIES OF DUARTE PACHECO PEREIRA AND CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS - PART II
(the begining of article: “Portuguese travelers and currents on the Atlantic Ocean”)
The king Juan II, who was satisfied with results of Pereira’s expedition, asked his diplomatists to organize new negotiations. They had already prepared answers of questions, which would be given by Spaniards’ representatives and pontificator.
Portuguese planned to move the demarcation line for 370 liq instead of 100 liq towards the west from Azores at the result of negotiations with Spaniards held with participation of the Pope. The line was situated on the right of lands discovered by Columbus and near Europe. Representatives of Spaniards were sure that, Portuguese, who weren’t aware of existence of western lands, wanted to own some additional water basin in the ocean in order to ensure security of their vessels. Why did representatives of Spaniards agree with demands of their rivals without any resistance? They didn’t object to compromising useless ocean waters to Portuguese in order to avoid superfluous conflict.
The Pope Alexander VI (Borja or Borgia)
Representatives of Portuguese benefited by results of the discovery made during Pedro Cabral’s first travel as islands discovered by the Genoese admiral were situated at 650-700 west longitude and the territory discovered by Pereira was situated at 420-430 west longitude. As 250-300-buffer zone appeared between made discoveries, Portuguese were sure that, Spaniards wouldn’t object to moving the demarcation line for 45-470 towards the west longitude.
It should be especially mentioned that, Portuguese were successful in that business too. Bahamas, islands of Haiti and Cuba were first lands discovered by Christopher Columbus during the transatlantic passage and there weren’t any land in the east of them. Thus, if there was any territory in the east of known islands, Portuguese had an opportunity to appropriate it. Admiral’s report described only ocean waters in the east of the 65th and 70th meridians. Portuguese, who used Spaniards’ mistake, sent secret expedition to South American coasts hurriedly, discovered large land area in the east of the considered meridian and kept it secret. Juan II had to invite Spaniards to negotiations and to register secretly discovered lands officially.
Though negotiations hadn’t any significance for some time, they were restored afterwards and the treaty of Tordesillas was concluded on June 7, 1494. As it is known, the demarcation line was moved for 370 liq – 460 30/ towards the west from Azores and Brazil became property of Portugal. America became property of Spanish kings besides the remote western part of today’s Brazil. But in spite of it, it wasn’t considered victory of Spaniards. Thus, political geography of coasts of the New World was founded and the Pope sealed it up.
The demarcation line according to Tordesillas treaty
Thus, Portuguese swindled Spaniards by means of the Pope Alexander Borgia VI and appropriated Brazil which’s total area was equal to 8,5 milion square kilometers. That unjust division disclaimed efforts of Spaniards as Brazilian coasts were visited by Spanish sea travelers Vicente Pinson and Diego Lepe for the first time. Portuguese should be grateful to Duarte Pereira, but not Pedro Cabral for being owner of Latin America. Most seamen weren’t successful in discovering lands in the west of the Atlantic Ocean though following task was given to them. But Pereira could achieve mentioned goal. The experienced captain discovered lands, which were very important for the king Juan II, and could return to Europe before next negotiations held with Spaniards. Besides it, he participated in negotiations held in Tordesillas and swindled Spaniards by means of the Pope. The captain was obliged to keep this secret till the day he died.
King of Portugal II Juan (1455-1495) King of Portugal Manuel I (1469-1521)
It should be mentioned that, Portuguese could swindle their rivals as able hypnotizers. They pretended as if Spaniards had appropriated their lands. At the result of it, the demarcation line was moved towards the west.
The pontificator granted Ferdinand and Isabella titles of “Catholic Kings” in the same year.
The king Juan II was satisfied with the treaty concluded with Castilia as Portugal was aware of existence of Brazil and it could appropriate it. Portuguese didn’t know territories located on the other side of Brazil, they thought that, Brazil was situated in a large island as Madeira Islands, Azores and Green Cape Islands.
Portuguese should be grateful to Duarte Pereira, but not Pedro Cabral. After his travel, the longitude of Brazilian coasts was determined and the Portugal kingdom could appropriate Brazil.
Besides it, Pereira became well-known as the military commander in the next years. He travelled to Cochin City of India in 1503 and resisted to the army of 60 thousand fighters with 8 thousand soldiers. They wanted to banish Portuguese from India, but failed.
Pereira was appointed commandant of the Elmina fort, which was situated on the “Gold Coast” of Africa. But after a while, he became victim of intrigues and was on trial. He was accused of the false accusation – theft and corruption and was arrested. Though the seaman was fully exonerated afterwards, he lost his position, wealth and authority. He died in poverty and misery.
Duarte Pereira is approaching Cochin City
Spaniards began to send different expeditions to coasts of the New World before the third travel of Christopher Columbus. Expeditions were organized in order to explore territories of Anthill Islands and continents located in the north and south of them. It means that, lands located in the south of 280 north latitude were becoming property of Spaniards.
The death of Columbus. Lithograph by L. Prang & Co., 1893
Spanish sea travelers, who didn’t want to pay attention to previous bulls of Popes, began to sail below the 28th parallel in stages in accordance with permissions of monarchs and to appropriate territories located there.
Best regards, the member of Azerbaijan Geographic Society,
President grant holder on literature, laureate of the “Golden pen” award,
writer/ investigator Ramiz Daniz