PREFACE - NASIRADDIN TUSI AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASTRONOMY

The President’s grant holder and laureate of the “Golden pen” award Ramiz Daniz (Gasimov) writes various literary and scientific works. His scientific works astonishes scientists of geography, astronomy and history of mathematics.
I’m editing new work of the young writer. This work is an explanation of innovations made by Nasiraddin Tusi in the field of astronomy.
I got acquainted with the author of this book in June of 2002. The society of “Education” invited me to the scientific-practical conference about “Scientific services of Nasiraddin Tusi and N. Tusi in the activity of the writer and researcher Ramiz Gasimov (Daniz)” and offered me to make speech about his book “Christopher Columbus, Nasiraddin Tusi and discovery of America”. To say the truth I was surprised when heard the author’ name.
Probably, readers know that, Ramiz Daniz works in the Oil Refining Factory of SOCAR as a worker and isn’t high-educated, but I don’t want to speak about his auto-biography. As the name of the book was too haughty, I investigated the author’s previous activity and it turned out that, he is the author of several books and trilogy written in this field. After reading his books I asked myself: Who is Ramiz Daniz? Is he a writer or researcher and what does he want to gain? I understood that, he has his own style and tries to combine notions of “writer” and “researcher” and is the first author, who has achieved it. For example, he is a researcher in the above mentioned book and books used for this work prove it. Of course, most of issues mentioned in the book are disputable. But the author shouldn’t be accused for it as his purpose was to lay bare the truth by means of discussions and investigations.
Ramiz Daniz tried to describe different ages together. So, his books resemble scientific annals and historical adventure novels. This style can be considered one of new directions of our literature.
Of course, I’ll not describe the book in the preface. But as the acquaintance with books starts in the preface, it will be advisable to describe main purposes of the book. The book, which is about Tusi’s activity mainly, includes brief information about main results achieved in fields of geography, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, physics etc., their history, conditions of development and authors of those results. The activity of the Azerbaijani traveler and researcher Sheikh Muhammadali Babakuhi Bakuvi has also been described in detail. It is important to know these facts in order to understand Nasiraddin Tusi’s activity. Thus, if you want to learn Tusi’s activity, you should learn scientific-social condi-tions existed in the ancient time and middle ages and role of Eastern scientists in development of world. I think that, the author could overcome this difficult and hono-rable work.
I’m editing Ramiz Daniz’s work Nasiraddin Tusi and development of astronomy”. What made him to write this book? He has gathered a lot of materials about the scientist’s activity and decided to write the second book about Nasiraddin Tusi. He named his work Nasiraddin Tusi and development of astronomy. People haven’t been informed enough about works of the scien-tist written about astronomy, mathematics, geometry, ethics, pedagogy, philosophy and other sciences. So, the author wrote in the book: “… I began to investigate activities of genius personalities of Azerbaijan… Especially activity and scientific heritage of the notable scientist of Azerbaijan Muhammad Nasiraddin Tusi are very interesting. Though he is an author of very significant scientific discoveries, he isn’t known enough in the world”.
The author expresses his regret and writes that, Nasiraddin Tusi’s works have been published by most scientists as their own works. Readers, please, be attentive! The well-known Pole scientist N. Copernicus, who lived 250 years before Nasiraddin Tusi, had written the scien-tist’s theorem “Two circles, diameter of one of which is equal to half of the other one, are on one plane” in his work “Rotation of celestial spheres”. For the first time, this theorem was proved by Nasiraddin Tusi and included in his work “Memories about astronomy”. The wall quadrant used in the observatory of the Dane scientist Tycho Brahe was invented in Maragha observatory as well. Nasiraddin Tusi’s devices and works had influenced the development of astronomy and mathematics in Western Europe, Chine and India.
Geographical coordinates determined by Tusi by me-ans of simple astronomical equipments were determined more precisely afterwards. It is known that, the world map was made in accordance with coordinates fixed in “Zij-i Ilkhani” and America was described on that map. So, R. Gasimov tries to prove that Columbus had used Nasiraddin Tusi’s map during the discovery of America. Readers may ask following question – Was it necessary to write such book about Tusi? The initial answer may be “No”. But it is an unconsidered answer. Thus, how many Azerbaijanis have enough information about great Azerbaijani scientist Nasiraddin Tusi? Unfortunately, the answer of this question is certainly negative.
But these facts are unknown for us - Nasiraddin Tusi’s countrymen. So, Ramiz Daniz tried to give enough information about Nasiraddin Tusi by means of this work.
It is known that, Nasiraddin Tusi wrote masterpieces in fields of astronomy, mathematics, geometry and ethics, played a significant role in development of these sciences and passed ahead of well-known scientists for hundreds of years. The author has remembered scientific works carried out by the most ancient scientists of Greece, ancient Rome, Byzantine, Egypt and Muslim scientists of the early middle ages, mentioned that, Tusi had significant achievements in listed branches and tried to emphasize Tusi’s genius.
According to the book, the astronomical table “Zij-i Ilkhani” prepared by Nasiraddin Tusi was used for discovery of America. Ramiz Daniz mentioned it in the book, which explains most issues concerning Tusi’s scientific activity and causing scientists of the world to think. The scientist had described the prime meridian at 340 west of today’s Greenwich Meridian (remote north-western coast of Brazil) and this fact helped Columbus when he passed the ocean.
Scientific works of R. Daniz may be spread among scientists and ordinary readers interested in the history of geographical discoveries. Ramiz Daniz has found out new facts and so could destroy stereotypes concerning this field.
                                                                                                             
       Ramiz Mammadov – Laureate of State Prize, Associate Member of the Academy of Science,
       doctor of technical sciences, director of the Institute
       of Geography of the Academy of Science
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