The President’s grant holder and laureate of the “Golden pen” award Ramiz Daniz (Gasimov) writes various literary and scientific works. His scientific works astonishes scientists of geography, astronomy and history of mathematics.
He has described obscurities of Columbus’s first travel and very interesting facts concerning the unknown map used by him during the expedition in his work “Christopher Columus, Nasiraddin Tusi and real discovery of America”. R. Daniz has denied known information and mentioned that, Columbus knew the destination, route and term of his travel, but kept it secret. Of course, this is a serious judgement. Reasons why three expeditions sent by Portuguese to the western part of the Atlantic Ocean in order to find the forth continent failed have been explained in the work. The author has proved by indicating perspicacity of Spanish monarchs and disbelief of the king of Portugal that “Mathematical Union” of Lisbon had significant role in appropriation of those territories by Spaniards. Besides it, Ramiz Daniz has mentioned that, Columbus had used calculations of scientists of the East including Nasiraddin Tusi when he prepared his project.
“Enigmatic discovery of Brazil” concerns the problem, which make scientists of geographical discoveries to hesitate, and the author tries to prove that Brazil wasn’t discovered by Pedro Cabral in 1500 by accident, it was discovered by Duarte Pereira in 1494 in accordance with secret agreement reached with the king of Portugal, but the result of that travel was kept secret for some reasons. In accordance with this work, Portuguese were able to conceal Spaniards by means of the Pope and became owners of today’s Brazil according to Tordesillas treaty concluded in 1494. Though Portuguese were agree to own lands located at 100 liq west of Azores in 1493, in accordance with the result of the secret expedition of Duarte Pacheco, who visited American coasts after a year, they appropriated large territories by moving the demarcation line between Spain and Portugal for 270 liq towards the west.
The author has described scientific activities and achievements of the remarkable scientist N. Tusi, essence of most of his works known all over the world in his next work The scientist passed ahead of centuries – Nasiraddin Tusi and mentioned that, several works of the scientist had been published by other authors as their own works.
It is known that, Nasiraddin Tusi wrote masterpieces in fields of astronomy, mathematics, geometry and ethics, played a significant role in development of these sciences and passed ahead of well-known scientists for hundreds of years. The author has remembered scientific works carried out by the most ancient scientists of Gree-ce, ancient Rome, Byzantine, Egypt and Muslim scien-tists of the early middle ages, mentioned that, N. Tusi had significant achievements in listed branches and tried to emphasize Tusi’s genius.
According to the book, the astronomical table “Zij-i Ilkhani” prepared by Nasiraddin Tusi was used for discovery of America. Ramiz Daniz mentioned it in the book, which explains most issues concerning Tusi’s scientific activity and causing scientists of the world to think. The scientist had described the prime meridian at 340 west of today’s Greenwich Meridian (remote north-western coast of Brazil) and this fact helped Columbus when he passed the ocean.
Another interesting moment is the investigation of the real owner of the map made by the Turkish admiral Piri Reis in 1513, which has been analyzed in most science centers.
The author says that, part of that map, which was made of ancient manuscripts, was made in Maragha observatory under the leadership of Tusi. Besides it, he has mentioned that, Columbus had sailed to coasts of the New World by means of that map. According to R. Deniz, Piri Reis could find it afterwards together with the scientist’s notes.
Most scientists had used Tusi’s “Zij-i Ilkhani” when they made their astronomical catalogues. The Russian scientist Lobachevski and other scientists of geometry had made use of “Tahriru Uglidis” and German scientist Regiomontanus published a copy of “Shaklul-qita” as his work. Isaac Newton’s teacher John Vallis read lectures at the University of Oxford in accordance with “Tahriru Uglidis” and played a significant role in popularization of N. Tusi in England. Besides it, Copernicus had used Tusi’s theorem “Two circles, one’s diameter being equal to half of another one’s, are on the same plane”, which he had proved in his work “Memories about astronomy”, in his work “About rotations of celestial spheres”.
Piri Reis made an atlas in 1528 and included this map in that atlas by fixing the date as 1513. Afterwards it turned out that, mentioned historical material was copied from ancient manuscripts kept in the library of Constantinople.
According to historical sources, Piri Reis often visited that library in order to analyze ancient documents and maps. Mentioned map could attract attention of Turkish scientists for its exactness. It was almost the first map, which described outlines of America. Besides it, the sensational material included outlines of North America and Antarctica. It was made 21 years after the first travel of Columbus. But the Genoese admiral hadn’t visited the continent besides eastern coasts of Panama, Nicaragua and Honduras. Antarctica was discovered after more than 300 years by Fadday Bellingshausen and Mikhail Laza-rev (1820). That’s why most scientists made radical steps in order to analyze the map. Author of the map and date of its preparation were interesting for them.
The American secretary of state Henry Stimson also was interested in this investigation. He thought that, “Columbus’s map” could be in Turkey. He ordered the ambassador of USA in Turkey to start researches in order to find mentioned map. Though the Turkish government supported researches comprehensively, any success couldn’t be achieved.
Piri Reis mentioned that, he had used about twenty maps made during the age of Macedonian Isgandar in accordance with exact calculations. But scientists didn’t believe his explanation about the map found in 1929.
Scientists couldn’t believe the Turkish admiral’s statements as aerocosmic technology didn’t exist then. There wasn’t any copy of maps made during the age of Macedonian Isgandar. The Turkish admiral’s map caused great resonance in Turkey.
The map was published in many editions in the state publishing house in 1935 in accordance with the order of the president of Turkey Mustafa Kamala Ataturk, who was proud that, cartography had been developed in Turkey even in XVI century.
 Ch. Hapgood came to the following conclusion when analyzed the map: “Exact information is exchanged bet-ween nations. The map was made by unknown nation and was found by Phoenicians and Creteans, who were considered genius seamen during more than thousand years, in ancient times. It became clear that, such maps were kept in the Great Library of Alexandria located in Egypt before being annihilated by the Crusaders in VII century”.
All these facts prove that, cartography is one of the most ancient science branches and there were professional cartogramphers - authors of exact maps even 15000 years ago. Afterwards mentioned maps began to be spread in new civilization centers of the world.
Books full of rich historical facts and sensational information will be interesting for scientists all over the world and attract special attention. Discovery of America and Brazil is the most interesting part of the history of geographical discoveries and these books are significant source for deep investigation of mentioned theme.
Scientific works of R. Daniz may be spread among scientists and ordinary readers interested in the history of geographical discoveries. Ramiz Daniz has found out new facts and so could destroy stereotypes concerning this field.
       Ramiz Mammadov – Laureate of State Prize, Associate Member of the Academy of Science,
       doctor of technical sciences, director of the Institute
       of Geography of the Academy of Science


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