“AMERIGO VESPUCCI, MARTIN WALDSEMULLER – SECRET BARGAIN” - PREFACE BY PROFESSOR ELBRUS ALIZADEH

Preface
          Elucidation of enigmas concerning the travel of Amerigo Vespucci
 
Though many researches have been carried out in the field of the history of geographical discoveries, this field of the science looks as endless as oceans. Every research work written in the age of major geographical discoveries includes some innovation. Ramiz Daniz (Gasimov), who has carried out important works in this field, wrote his forth book in the series of the history of geographical discoveries and presented to the readers, especially geographers, cartographers, historians and other scientists. He has described real discovery of America in his work “Christopher Columbus, Nasiraddin Tusi and real discovery of America” and proved that, the celebrated Spanish sea traveler knew where, through which current and parallel and how long he had to sail beforehand during his first travel. Besides, he knew the distance between the territories, located on the other coast of the Atlantic Ocean, and western coasts of Europe. Ramiz Daniz has explained the reason, why Christopher Columbus kept it secret, in detail. Besides, the author tried to draw world’s attention to the most important reality – Columbus could discover America owing to the astronomic catalogue “Zij-i Ilkhani” pre-pared by the celebrated Azerbaijani scientist Nasiraddin Tusi (1201-1274), who lived in the 13th century and his calculations given in the table of geographical coordinates.
The author’s second scientific work is The scientist passed ahead of centuries – Nasiraddin Tusi. The work is about the works, presented by the Azerbaijani scientist Muhammad Nasiraddin Tusi to the world, construction of Maraga observatory and usage of equipment of the observatory in other observatories, misappropriation of some of the scientist’s works by other scientists, analysis of the map of Turkish admiral Piri Reis, propagandization of several geographical discoveries, development of geography in the Ancient, Early and Middle Ages, and many other secrets about disco-very of America. Here are opinions of the academician Ramiz Mammadov about that book: “The author investigated scientific works and achievements of the celebrated scientist Nasiraddin Tusi, could explain essence of most works and found out that several works of the scientist were misappropriated by other scientists.
It is known that, Tusi have masterpieces on the astronomy, mathematics, geometry and ethics and he had a significant role in development of these sciences passing ahead of celebrated scientists in these fields for hundreds of years. The author mentioned scientific works of scientists of the ancient times, who lived in Rome, Byzantine, Egypt and Muslim scientists, lived in the Early Middle Ages, on geography, astronomy and mathematics and tried to describe Tusi’s success in these fields”.
There are a lot of new facts and serious thoughts on the discovery of Brazil in the book “Enigmatic discovery of Brazil”. The author has noted that, mentioned territory was discovered by Duarte Pacheco Pereira in the first quarter of 1494, but not by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500. Results of Pereira’s travel were presented to the Portuguese when the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) was signed and they deceived representatives of Spain by means of the Pope Alexander Borgia VI and moved demarcation line for 370 liq towards the west of the Green Cape Islands.
The author approaches major geographical discoveries from new prism and elucidates most obscurities in this field by discovering interesting details. Such productivity is a proof of his high energy and rich intellectual potential.
The author analyzed major geographical discoveries differently and tried to find out new details about most unknown issues. It proves that he has great passion and his intellectual potential is rich enough. Above mentioned works were presented in the Institute of Geography of ANAS, named after Hasan Aliyev, on March 5, 2014 under my chairmanship, and some interesting and valuable opinions were said about the author’s researches. Particularly, I want to note that, the public writer Chingiz Abdullayev supports R. Daniz’s literary works and celebrated detective author’s participation and mentionable speeches proved it once again.
It should be mentioned that, works of Ramiz Daniz, who is known as an innovator owing to his historical adventure books “Conquistadors, travelling to the coasts of the New World”, “Tragic death of conquistadors on the coasts of the Central Chile”, “Holy mission”, “People going to the Paradise appear in the Hell” (events occur in the 16th century in Spain, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador and Chile), and sensational scientific works on the history of geographical discoveries made in the Early and Middle Ages, are supported by Azerbaijan Geographic Society, Aqra Public Union on Support of Science Development, Union of Great Patriotic War Veterans and SOCAR, who has a signify-cant role in translation and publication of these works, besides Chingiz Abdullayev. 
Hundreds, even thousands of books have been written about Amerigo Vespucci and his activity during that period, so, we can think that, any obscures wasn’t left about the Florentine cosmographer. It has been accepted as the fact that, Amerigo Vespucci, who conquered the Atlantic Ocean with the flags of Spain and Portugal, sailed towards the coasts of the New World four times, discovered outfall of the Amazon River – the richest river of the world and reached coasts of Antarctica (520  latitude) first of all Europeans. He declared that the New World was the forth continent of the world and Martin Waldsemuller named that territory “America” in honor of Vespucci. That’s why, scientists of the world considers him one of the most celebrated sea travelers as Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Bartolommeo Dias and Ferdinand Magellan.
A. Humboldt, F. Varnhagen, R. Pombu, A. Slozkin, I. Magidovich, V. Magidovich and other scientists carried out enough researches about Vespucci and presented most of his books to the world community. Almost the most important information and facts have been found out with all details.
R. Daniz’s scientific work disproves all facts known about Vespucci. It analyses activity of the Florentine cosmographer and disproves many historical facts known about him with objective arguments.
The author has proved following facts in his book “Amerigo Vespucci, Martin Waldsemuller – secret bargain”: Vespucci travelled to America twice as a merchant, but not quadrice and 32-page letter, which brought him fame, is a copy of some lines of diaries of Pero Vaz de Caminha, Diego Chanca and Christopher Columbus. According to the author, lines of America on the map made by Martin Waldsemuller in 1507 were analogous to the lines on the left corner of the map made by Piri Reis in 1513 and same source was used for these maps.
Result of the research carried out by the author:
1. Vespucci hadn’t any role in discovery of the Amazon River. The Florentine cosmographer tried to present his fictitious letter to the world community in order to appropriate another sea traveler’s success.
2. R. Deniz proves that, Vespucci didn’t sail to 520 latitude near Antarctica.
3. The Florentine cosmographer didn’t travel quadrice as scientists wrote, he travelled only twice as the member of the Chamber of Commerce.
4. The author has found out that, Vespucci’s correspondence with the king of Portugal Manuel I wasn’t real.
5. The map made by Waldsemuller in 1507 was handed over by Vespucci.
6. Secret proposals of Vespucci as the navigation officer of Castile had a significant role in naming the forth continent America in books and maps prepared by most geographers and cartographer. It means that, he used his powers in order to name the continent, discovered by Columbus, “America”.
7. In general, the author declared that, it is unjust to name the New World “America” and scientists all over the world have to make serious steps to correct this mistake.
Ramiz Daniz’s new work allows to look through Amerigo Vespucci’s biography, his personal and public activity and his tracks in the history. So, novelties of this book will attract attention of scientists working in the field of the history of geography. I’m sure that, scientists’ reactions will not be univocal and new works will appear for coming to the common conclusion.
As mentioned works are about some periods of the history of Portugal, Spain, Italy, Brazil, Azerbaijan and Turkey, they can cause interest in these countries.
 
 
                        The deputy director of scientific work
                          of the Institute of Geography of ANAS,
     named after Hasan Aliyev,
                corresponding member of ANAS,
     Professor Elbrus Alizadeh
 
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